NRI Papers
No.96 October 1, 2005
  India's Environmental Strategy and Future Cooperation with Japan  
Tetsuji UEMURA
      The Kyoto Protocol came into force in February 2005. For Japan, which is required to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 6 percent below the level of 1990, it is vital to cooperate with India, which is the largest GHG emission country next to China among the developing countries, for reducing her GHG emissions.
      In India, environmental measures are addressed under a five-year plan in linkage with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations. These measures are not intended to serve only a single purpose but concurrently pursue multiple purposes such as the prevention of pollution, the prevention of global warming and the alleviation of poverty.
      In recent years, improvements have been made in terms of the implementation of these measures such as by an order of the Supreme Court. However, because of limited resources and India's vast land area, it is difficult to uniformly and simultaneously implement environmental measures. Consequently, it is necessary to first implement environmental measures on a site basis such as at pollution sources, affected villages and plants causing pollution. These measures should then be networked and expanded to include surrounding areas.
      In the past, environmental cooperation between Japan and India was principally implemented through official development assistance (ODA). The future framework of cooperation will involve clean development mechanism (CDM) projects and will use local plants of Japanese companies operating in India as the venues. Accordingly, it is important to promote economic interchange that can serve as the basis for such future cooperative activities in the environmental field.
Contents
I The Kyoto Protocol and Japan's Responsibility
II Considering Japan-India Environmental Cooperation
III Current Status of Environmental Measures in India
  1 Basic Concept of Environmental Measures
  2 Environmental Regulations and Management System in India
  3 Possibility of CDM in India
  4 Recent Moves to Secure the Effectiveness of Regulations
IV Japan-India Collaboration in the Environmental Field
  1 Two Perspectives
  2 Smoothly Progressing ODA vs. Slow CDM Moves
  3 Japan Faces the Need to Resolve Resource Shortages
  4 Contribution to Environmental Education
  5 Moving Toward Japan-India Environmental Cooperation

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